4IR Solutions
Custody Transfer
The Challenge
The strategic importance of placing a Process NMR system at the pipeline point of entry.
  • To verify that the pipeline tender is fully intact and meets delivery specifications.
  • To remove liability of the supplier should the product experience changes/contamination during pipeline transmission to the end user.
Placement at the point of entry also provides the supplier with an early warning regarding:
  • Stratification of product while in delivery storage tanks prior to shipment.
  • Detrimental co-mingling with tank heels from previous tender
  • Asphaltene precipitation (plugging)
  • Water Separation which typically causes corrosion.
This way early corrective actions can be taken (i.e. diverting tender to upstream holding tankage) so that improper delivery to the end user is avoided. Once the improper material is segregated, corrective measures can be applied (i.e. blending to specification, re-processing, etc.).
Quality/Value Measures are typically set by the end user.
  • The unique properties of crude oil are defined by the Distillation Cut Point. Undesirable mixing between different types of crude will be immediately detected. The fluidity of the crude oil is mainly defined by its density as the pipelines have restrictions on the level of crude density.
  • Sulfur concentration is one of the major parameters of the crude product and indicates the propriety of the stream. Chlorine (including organic chloride) is often present in crude oil, and its concentration can vary greatly depending on the origin.
  • Performance Measures are used to ensure the proper operation of pipelines and process units. TAN is a measurement that is critical in defining the corrosive capacity of the crude oil for protecting the integrity of the pipeline. Asphaltenes are critical in defining and avoiding pipeline plugging and fouling.
  • Integrity Measures are used to ensure storage tank and pipeline tender integrity, as TAN, Asphaltenes and Water are immediate indicators of improper co-mingling (crude incompatibility and/or tank heel mixing) and tank stratification.
Critical properties
The properties measured fall into three categories:
Quality/Value Measures:
  • Distillation Cut Point: IBP; Cumulative Yields at 150°c, 220°c, 350°c, 520°c
  • Density at 60°c
  • Simulated Distillation: T10, T30, T50, T70, T90
  • % Sulfur
  • Chlorine (including organic chloride)
  • Mercaptans
  • Hydrogen sulfide
Performance Measures:
  • TAN (Total Acidity Number)
  • Asphaltenes
  • Water
Integrity Measures:
  • TAN (Total Acidity Number)
  • Asphaltenes
  • Water
System Configurations
Difference in the Composition of Crude Oil
Sample Preparation System
Sampling from the pipes and switching between different process streams
Temperature control; Flow control; Pressure control
Recovery System
Measurements Required Accuracy

Crude Oil measuring conditions:

Temperature - 10 to 30
Pressure - 0 to 0.5 Mpa
Density - 800 to 900 Kg/m3
Custody Transfer

13 May 2020

4IR Process analyzer system at the pipeline point of entry

The strategic importance of placing a Process analyzer system the pipeline point of entry...